Beijing Changping County, a Ming Dynasty imperial tombs, namely the famous Ming Dynasty Tombs. Around 40 km range, buried the 13 Ming Dynasty emperors, 23 Queen's and many concubines, Prince, princess, from bury concubines.
( a ) general situation
Ming Yongle five years ( 1407) Yongle's empress Xu 's death. Yongle ordered Li, department and Warlock wind warning Mr. et al, in the Beijing suburb of looking for the " auspicious soil ". He was designated the Tanzhe Temple, Yan Taiwan, Tu camp etc., Zhu Dijun dissatisfied. Jiangxi later magicians Liao Junqing said, Changping North Kyrgyzstan soil, can life years domain name, loess hill, mountain dragon, tiger hills, forming a small plain. Yongle of the inspection was satisfied, decided to build the Loess Hill, modified for Shoushan days. Yongle seven years ( 1409) built a formal hills, to the Yongle eleven years completed, namely the hills. The Ming Dynasty (except Jingtai emperor Emperor Mausoleum built in succession on the outside). Ming rule, tomb three ( annual offerings, in tomb-sweeping day, the winter solstice ), small offering four times ( it, Dong Meng, birthday, fleeting days). Each ye-ling huge. Ming Dynasty Tombs on the ground building ever a few degrees of destruction, the most serious one is qing. During the late Ming and Qing Dynasty rises from the northeast, the security threat. Some people say we are strong and his family grave Feng shui. They ( people ) of graves in Fangshan, such as the Qing destroyed, destroy namely. Tianqi emperor in the Apocalypse two years ( 1622) sent to destroy the Fangshan Jinling, and built the temple town. Qingbingruguan, take the same revenge, destroying the Ming tombs. Qing emperor Qian Long fifty years, in order to approach complex Han, had ordered the repair of the Ming tombs. The Republic of China period, about 1914, the local gentry for property has been damaged, the Ming tombs.
1 mausoleum area
The area of the original is a 40 km long wall. Red wall from the palace gate, built close to the mountains and, in a mountain pass, Higashiyama Guchi, Tang Yin village mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth, lime ridge awl Yan Desheng mouth, mouth, mouth, mouth, squeeze West ten points, each guarded by troops. Now the walls have no names, but from look can know the current tomb area.
2 mausoleum axis
( 1) the stone archway
The stone arch is in the southernmost building. The band five doors six column eleven floors, 14 meters high, 28 . 86 meters wide, was built in nineteen years Jiajing ( 1540), is currently the largest, the earliest Shihfang keep. Clamping bar stone surrounded by embossed, engraved with eight lions rolling Hydrangea, sixteen health, lively style.
( 2) the great palace gate
The great palace gate is the front gate city. The door is divided into three holes, even 40 km near the wall. The door down "officials and dismount " monument. The door there were several guardian, no person shall enter. Set at that time " and destroy hills, to seek the regicide theory, no song from, are executed ". Pirates of the cut trees are cut in the mausoleum, families sent to the frontier land.
( 3) Bei Lou
The building of Zhongyan top four majesty, building pack giant monument, the monument is the result of continued, three feet ( the tablet was formally established in Xuande ten years, namely 1435 ad). Positive for the result of the inscription, more than 3000 words, the Ming emperor Renzong Gaochi eldest son Zhu author. Beiyin is Qian Long fifty years ( 1785), the Qing Emperor Gaozong's " Ai Ming Tomb thirty rhyme ", detailed record of long, permanent, fixed, think of a few tomb decrepit circumstance. The eastern side of the mausoleum of Qing government monument is clean spend record, on the west side is the Jiaqing nine years ( 1804) the fall of the Ming Qing emperor Renzong discusses reasons.
4 Shi Xiangsheng
God Road on both sides of a group of stone group, 24, 12, 18, 36. Including lions, Xie Zhi, camel, horse, kylin, as each of the 4 horse, two lie two li. The ministers, civil servants, Xun Chen 4 each.
( 5) lattice star gate
Lattice star gate known as the dragon gate, here are " heaven " of Italy, gate three road between short walls apart. 6 post a table, three door sales square central carved stone fire beads, the local people also called flame arch. Lattice star gate north of the 7 hole Han jade God bridge, leading to the mausoleum mausoleum door.
( two) bury empress profile
The name bury years, temple in time, number of years of Queen Ling Zhu enjoyed years buried long Di Yong music into the progenitors of the 1403～ 14242265 Tsui offered Ling Zhu Gao Chihong Xi Ren in 1425148 's King Ling Zhu Zhanji Xuan Zong Xuande 1426～ 14351038 sun Shi Yu Ling Zhu Qizhen orthodoxy of Tian Shunying were 1436～ 1464 ( front and rear ), 2238 money Zhou Shimao, Zhu Jianshen into the Constitution in 1465～ 14872341 Ji, Wang, Shao Shitai Mausoleum of Zhu Youtanghong rule in 1488～ 15051836 filial piety Zhang Shi Kang Ling Zhu Houzhao is de Wu in 1506～ 15211631 summer Shi Yong Ling Zhu Jia Jing Shi Zong thick 1522～ 15664560 Du, Chen, Fang Shizhao Ling Zhu Zaiyu Ron Qing Mu in 1567～1572636 Li, Chen, Li Shiding Ling Zhu Yi Junwan calendar Shenzong 1573～ 16204858 king, Wang Shiqing Ling Zhu Chang Luotai Chang in 16201 months 39 Guo, king, Liu Shide Ling Zhu from school days Qi Xi in 1621～ 1627723 Zhang Si Ling Chong Zhen Zhu seized by thinking in 1628～16441735 Tian, Zhou
( three) hills
Zhang Ling in the Ming Dynasty Tombs is the first hills, covers an area of 10 hectares. The tomb is the Yongle Emperor Yongle Emperor Yongle and empress Xu's.
1 cemetery layout
There are three courtyard mausoleum. The first courtyard from the mausoleum door to gateway. Inside the mausoleum door side of the original God, God of the library 5. The southeastern corner is a pavilion in a, no inscription, was built in fifteen years Jiajing ( 1536). The Qing emperor Shunzhi seen mausoleum, in Shunzhi sixteen years ( 1659), in the stone facade with Han, two full text engraved the ye-ling feelings. Beiyin is emperor Qian Long in 1785 after the Ming Tombs engraved ye-ling Ye eight rhyme. The second courtyard from gateway to the inner gate. Nosocomial en Temple 9 wide, 5 deep, Zhong Yan Dianding veranda. The 60 Nan stakes, 4 column diameter of over 1 meters. The temple is the best domestic nanmu temple. The original big temple shrines, for the emperor and empress xu. On both sides of the hall 's original veranda Gallery 15, has been no deposit. Third courtyard from inside the gate to the ming. Hospital front is the two arch stone column, followed by five, Ming and the city. Ming is every tomb notes, and each tomb on the axis of the highest building. The roof of Zhongyan Xieshan, built in the city, go with the amount of said, "Zhang ling ". Epitaph for Wanli thirty-two years making. The original inscription " King " ( Yongle original model ), and later becomes the Jiajing Emperor Taizong in Jiajing seven years change for the emperor, not only for stone, wood carving the monument with the emperor. Wanli thirty-two years ( 1604) lightning fire, wood was destroyed. In Shen 's playing please change the new monument. Ming sides even city, City Park Hill that Ding, week one hundred Zhang, namely below the Palace of the Earth.
2 things well
Zhang Ling mausoleum also administer belongs to things well. The east well in de tomb steamed south mountain, Nishii in the northwest. " Well " in the " death " was buried sacrificial Palace maids. They are the emperor's underground by death, although without the qualification into the Palace of the Earth. Bury their grave ( vertical buried ) called " well ".
( four) the
In the northeast of the big valley mountain (formerly known as the small valley of mountain ), is buried in the Ming Dynasty Emperor Wanli emperor Zhu Yijun thirteenth generation and filial piety end, Jing two queens. Wanli eleven years ( 1583) Zhu Yijun by offering opportunity to survey the hill mausoleum, the final decision in the small valley of mountain for mausoleum, change of small valley mountain is a large valley mountain. Because the tomb is a huge rock, engineering level, people Jianzu its listen, decided to start the following year. Zhu Yijun was only 22 years old. In the twelve years from start to completion, in the eighteen years, which lasted for 6 years. Grave engineering quality excellent. After the completion of the Wanli emperor, 28 years old, had in their Palace of the Earth drinking like he, then the tomb mouth closed. Zhu Yijun is a brutal dissolute king, in the 48 year of his reign was not drinking, joy, rack one's brains for ingenious devices also recruit people, such as the selection of the "nine world ", " ten Jun " etc..
1. Introduce the landscape
( 1) God of the monument
The monument is wordless tablet, which was a beautiful green and white stone stone, monument first Yunlong hand wheel, swim pearl, Fui Sha Beizuo is a proud stone towards, below the water ripple. Which has a back side and a large white marks, like a full moon, white crystal, the monument monument known as the moon. Hundreds of years ago the Moon Legend monument can shine, but also with the lunar and the moon, and later by cemetery fire, lost aura.
( 2) gateway, en temple ruins
Mausoleum en temple also called Xiangdian hall, miankuo 7 original buildings. Qingbingruguan, have been destroyed. Qian Long fifty years renovating a mausoleum temple, will grace by big make down, instead of five. Until around 1914, was again destroyed, can now be seen Ling, Ling Tu Dian wide base sites.
( 3) the showroom
Ming Court sides develop Dingling excavated cultural relics exhibition room. The south side is the first showroom, the main display of the Wanli emperor unearthed relics ( including copies ), such as Shi Bao, the posthumous title of book, gold, jade, armor, sword, gold and silver utensils, such as silk. On the north side of the second main showroom, Chen Liexiao end, Xiao Jing two Queen's funerary objects, wherein a phoenix coronet twelve dragon nine-feng, a top six dragon and phoenix. Dragon mouth of the Pearl on the crown, decorated with countless Cuiyun, center on the gem with the flowers ... ... One of a total of more than 3000 pieces of cultural relics unearthed.
( 4) Ming
This is the best preserved building ground, because of the whole body is stone, stone by stone carved out of Liang Fangquan, and then paint decorated, elegant is not afraid of fire. Ming Dynasty Tombs, only permanent, two Ling Ming stony. Ming House, inside the tablet, which seal script " Daming " two words, which engraved " Shenzong emperor mausoleum was " seven words. Shenzong 's model. The history of the emperor died, according to the habit by his sons and his men set a good word to give additional titles, called " Shi law ". Zhu Yijun 's posthumous name is " Van TRW, zhe Su, Jane, Kofu Akita, Anren stop of filial piety, significant emperor ". " " is the word he Title abbreviation.
( 5) Po
Ming on both sides, is connected with the city. The city is a large round the walls, built with brick, circumference of about 750 meters, the city gate, is modeled after the practice, all with mottled stone masonry, the destruction of the Ming Tombs, the mottled stone ruin, now the Institute can also see sporadic mottled stone. The city is within the mound, Ding, Ding below for Palace of the Earth.
( 6 ) on the two queen of buried
Filial piety end queen died Wanli forty-eight years ( April 1620 ), did not have the hundred days, in July the same year Zhu Yijun died, so two people buried in the Palace of the Earth palace and catalpa. Xiao Jing Wang who is low, because of his NFDBE the son Zhu Changluo in Wanli twenty-nine album set for a prince, Muyizigui, in Wanli thirty-four years promoted to imperial concubine. Wanli thirty-nine years, Wang imperial concubine died. According to the system, not into the Royal Palace of the Earth, is buried in the Shandong near the wellbore Hiraoka to. The Wanli emperor died, the prince succeeded him, this is its parent Qianfen buried, but Zhu Changluo only had 29 days the emperor would die. Xi Zong Zhu from school year succeeded, apocalypse, made Xiao Jing dowager, in Wanli forty-eight years October moved grandmother buried the grave of Palace of the Earth.
( 7) Palace of the Earth ( Palace )
Excavation: 1955 October by Wu Han, Guo Moruo, Fan Wenlan, Deng Tuo, Shen Yanbing and others signed a petition of the State Council, proposed excavates Ming tombs. After approval, set up hills mining Commission, by the age of 29 Zhao Qichang was appointed captain Zheng Zhenduo discovered, in 1956 May began to try to guide the work, dig dingling. From the Dingling, on the inner side of the width of 3 . 5 meters, 20 meters long the first trenches. After 3 months, found that one end of the tunnel. It is composed of two large wall holding open-air Boulevard, catalpa palace after the use of Loess filling. In the Ming West opened again 10 meters wide, 30 meters long second trenches. In September 3, 1956, when digging to 7. 5 meters deep and found a small piece of stone, engraved on the " this stone to the wall before the skin sixteen feet deep, three feet five feet ". This monument views differ, but according to the stele refers, in 1957 May to the end of the tunnel, found a wall, when the wall. The dent, apparently door. Open gap, along the rope down, except on the ground scattered material bead and its wood, without him, this is certainly not the Palace of the Earth. The excavators called tunnel ticket. Tunnel vouchers for a brick roof arch, end of two fan Dashimen, nine rows of nails, his first title ring, white and smooth, which under the " tap the stone ". The workers only with wire and wood, less than 5 minutes to cleverly put sleeping for 337 years in the Palace of the Earth opened. The palace perspective in Palace of the Earth: Palace of the Earth is the tomb of the main part of, by, and left, right five hall. The total depth of 27 meters, construction area of 1195 square meters. The Palace of the Earth with 7 marble door, 3 . 3 meters high, 1 . 8 meters wide, weighs 4 tons, 2 tons of above horizontal heavy bronze door beams, holds the door. Each door by the pivot column side is heavy and thick, thin outwards, so that the focus on shaft. Therefore, look very bulky gate, opening and closing is very flexible. After closing a door to " tap stone ", from the outside of the opening is difficult. A board on the ground to protect the catalpa palace and plaster ground brick set. The nave has three white marble throne, the former seat of the side five glazed offerings and a blue and white porcelain cylinder yunlong. Central Plains a fragrant oil cylinder, oil on the small copper ladle and wick with brass and oil. ", namely the ever-burning lamps ". Open the Palace of the Earth, light is not long, a few centimeters has solidified oil surface. Three thrones were "goods" - shaped, then in order to facilitate the visit was replaced the figure "three". After the house is one of the largest temple, coffin park on Zhu Yijun and his two empresses of Catalpol palace. Coffin placed next to a jade material and filled with funerary objects red lacquer wooden. About Peidian a coffin, but no coffin. Square holes are arranged on the coffin, fill in loess, called " gold well ". This is the highest in the feudal era " gold well and gem interment " funeral.
( five) about the several problems
1. By exploring the Dingling, the legend of Palace of the Earth proved no wounding organs.
2. The Palace of the Earth, no legends of the construction of the person buried in the tomb of the fact.
3 Ming Dynasty Tombs of Ming Dynasty, only long, offer, King Sanling tomb was decapitated, burying the Palace of the Earth in " well ". In the thing two well buried Yongle Princess 16, Zhu Gaochi Princess 5, Zhu Zhanji Princess 10. The other tomb although there are victims, but to cover other's eyes and ears, but not recorded in history.
4. The Ming Dynasty in Beijing a total of fourteen emperors, of which Jingtai emperor Zhu Qiyu to his NFDBE Wang Lizang in the western suburbs of golden hill.
5. At present only on the excavation of the. Dingling excavation reports, after 33 years later, in 1989 before finishing up. When the joint report have been something, explore the responsible person only captain Zhao Qichang one person alive, and retired.