Ladies and gentlemen, we never look down upon Beijing's Hutong and courtyard, but can not see them as only people living accommodation, if listen to me a little explanation, can be found, the original Beijing's Hutong and courtyard contains such rich Chinese cultural connotation! I first introduce some knowledge about " alley ".
( the origin of the term. )
Beijing City alley and the busy street is, indeed some unremarkable, but according to the experts' research, the Ming Dynasty was the alley was studied, it has been five hundred or six hundred years of history. Alley way of Ming Dynasty and now is different, the " Hutong " two words, are respectively clamped on the " line " in the middle, such as Ming Jiajing thirty-nine years ( 1560) published in the " five square Lane Yi set " of " Yi " two characters, is typical of the early documents. Ming Dynasty on this is very proud, " said Hu Hetong is " Great Harmony ", on the surface with " ethnic unity "connotation, however two characters are caught in the " line " between words, imply that the Mongols ( the rulers to leave sooner or later ).
The numerous experts have more from the perspective of Hutong is researched, some from the angle of phonology, some glyphs from the development point of view, some dialects from a point of view ... ... Finally, more focused outcomes that hutong is mongolian. This century 40 time published " Beijing gazetteer " contained, in Mongolia, the tribe is slightly larger than the village of alley, experts have said, the hutongs are " hot " in Mongolian transliteration. Hot namely town, including alley.
Former vice president of Inner Mongolia University Zhang Qingchang's research is more convincing. He thinks the alley is the Mongolian transliteration of " Hottog ", is a well meaning, someone " Huo " or "down hole ", now Inner Mongolia still has to sound named places, such as game audio and hole ( well ), video and hole ( dead well ), ha industry and hole ( Shuangjing) and so on. The Beijing area has always been to water as the center, distribution of residents.
( hutong will appear )
Hutong since originated from Mongolian language, so the rule of the Mongols in Beijing region in the Yuan Dynasty, the word may appear. Sure enough, the people in the Yuan Dynasty discovered the " alley ". The Yuan Dynasty opera composer Wang Shifu's " dance " beautiful spring chamber drama, there are " just as Kam alley " lyrics, the other in Zaju of the Yuan Dynasty also showed similar, such as " farewell to my mother, string alley ." ( " the mother three shift " ), "I live in the alley pagoda ( " " Salmonella Island Sheng Chu Hai " ) ... ... The play is now the West alley pagoda Street South seat seven tower of the alley.
Since the Yuan Dynasty appeared the word Hutong, and Beijing is a 3000 years of history has a city, people may ask, before Yuan Dynasty, Beijing area streets called what? The answer is simple, then the Beijing area by the ancient passed down the old system, called street, lane, lane, in the. From this point on the Xuanwu District place names can be confirmed. Because the history of Xuanwu District early in the inner city. In other words, is the first Xuanwu District ( the ancient city of thistle ), after the inner city ( Yuan Dynasty ), so in Xuanwu District now called Hutong names relatively less, and lane, lane, in the street to wait for place names, the more, such as south side, Bai, Spring Lane, Huakang.
( are due to follow the Hutong names )
Some foreign friends or foreign guests to Beijing all kinds of alley of that incredible, ears, the back of the chair, bean sprouts, nose like pit, braised canned calabash, Shih, widow, Bigfoot, King stinking skins, are alley, a miss the point, is better than other big city, such as Shanghai, Tianjin, use of names or events as the city names, or credit, or road, let people stick out a mile. In fact, Beijing place names also have its immanent connection, but did not cause the attention of people. If a little analysis, discover not hard, Beijing these places and people's life or social phenomenon. The reason why people think they are so all kinds of, be, mainly because these names appear time early or late, due to the complex social phenomenon. In general, the alley of Beijing is formed naturally, not by executive order, unified planning, and is the source of life.
( Metro appears, alley without name)
In thirteenth Century 1267 ～ in 1285, with 18 years of time, at the time of the Liao, Jin City (now Xuanwu District ) northeast side, built a new city in Beijing City, which is now the predecessor of Yuan Dynasty city. " Marco Polo " is the author of journey to visit the Yuan Dynasty City italian. His travels in the city streets, mostly straight, gates can each other through the streets. On both sides of the street are housing, shops. City street planning and tidy, like a big chessboard ... ... Marco Polo 's account should be more objective. The Yuan Dynasty, not transformation of the old city, however from 0 begin the new, so as to achieve the ideal of people design and construction planning. The new city there, street, building perfect, for the later city of Beijing laid a foundation, but in addition to Main Street main road names, some other small branch or alley names did not follow, but over time, gradually appeared.
( from life, the natural formation of the alley )
Metro appeared, alley built, but people originally lived in don't necessarily feel more comfortable, as no street names, at least visit relatives and friends to find people to not easy, want to tell friends home, only a description, or the use of well-known people, eye-catching buildings as representatives, instead of his address. Such as, " my family lives lived yellow veterinary that alley ", " I live like the bell alley ", "I live in the equine arytenoid that alley ", " my family lives in a food factory in that alley " ... ... For a long time, appeared yellow veterinary alley, alley, alley mouth horse dipper, food factory alley ... ... Alley, street names are not only from life formed in nature, but also a kind of social phenomenon reflected through the alley, the name can also be understood to the social.
( street names reflect social phenomenon)
In the current west of Shichahai, Houhai, Gulou, tricycle route as the main reference. Here is Beijing city out of 25 cultures in the area's largest, very typical.
Ladies, gentlemen: today we afternoon activities is a shopping and visit the siheyuan hutong. Hutong and courtyard is the history of the Beijing city organism, is the cell of society, is the old Beijing people have struggled to recuperate and build up strength, where the city of Beijing, is the witness of the history. We want to truly understand the livelihood of the people of Beijing, have to drill string alley, quadrangles.
In order to make us tour for increasing interest, now using the travel time, introduce some knowledge about Hutong and courtyard.
( guides can use the appropriate time, the guests to the summation or sectional introduction below .)
The name can know a lot of the prevailing social phenomenon. For example, we can get inspiration from inside the city of Beijing, such as can be concluded that there are many followers of Buddhism, as the city is not only the temple, but also to the temple as the names of the streets there are more than 80, such as the song wish Temple alley, Purdue Temple front, back alley; Beijing city was a typical consumption city, no big industry, only the service life for the people handicraft workshop, such as casserole Liu alley, alley, alley, Shen grate twine broom lane are for the people making the necessities of the workshop; Beijing people about eating, to food as street names is witness, a twist alley, alley, alley, beans cooked tea alley; feudal society on the hat very seriously, reflected in the name. There is straw alley, alley, alley in cap turban hat, hat, hat Wing Lee alley alley; feudal Yashu guards were also reflected in the names, such as the division office, general shop alley, alley, alley according to the Institute, the alley; there are no products, provide services only to city industry, is also the time when the society is the inevitable product, reflected in the names on the washing and dyeing industry, dyeing, Wei alley to gelding pig industry Gelding Zhang alley, alley, Shih pipe delivery tube funeral coffin alley, alley, alley, fire box housing ... ... Thus, street names, is also a part of social science.
( old names do not adapt to the social changes )
Generally speaking, people place once formed, verbal generation along the transmission, it is not easy to change. Some of the names since the Yuan Dynasty appears to have been called up to now have not changed, as mentioned earlier, the alley pagoda on the west side of Wangfujing, in front of the food factory alley belfry salad alleyways. Salad is Mongolian coral meaning, the Qing Dynasty was transliteration called Shu Lu, this is called salad. Some of the names or gates, the Ming Dynasty has been renamed, but some people still call the old name, such as the yuan Qi door, side door, Shun for the door, the Ming Dynasty has changed its name to Chaoyangmen, Fuchengmen, Xuanwumen, until before the liberation of Beijing, also called the old name, proves its vitality of.
With the development of society, the old always updated, place names is no exception. For some reason, place names to be altered, changing the names of the first is the social cause. In 1900, the Eight-Power Allied forces to make a lot of construction does not exist, it appears new building, street lane, changed the original layout, but renamed; feudal dynasty was overthrown, the monarchy into a republic, and the emergence of a new government, so there are more than 300 Street Lane changed its name, such as a royalty alley changed yet ground stone alley alley, adults to the Ministry of foreign affairs, on 1966, the people of the whole country is facing a disaster, street names is also one of the " old four", in the case of natural "sweep", in the street name " hit a red world ", appeared then the Red Road ( Beixinqiao), Red Road (Xinjiekou ), Red Road ( high street ), Red Road East of the three. With a total line the road, the great leap forward, the people's commune road road instead of the so-called feudalism brand street name. Old Beijing old alley uniform change why red, Yonghong alley, alley, and so on, with the scarlet letter became a revolutionary names, even very small erduoyan alleyway is also changed to " red " in the end ... ...
There is also a need to change it, is the name of. Street names since it is a natural formation, is " coincidentally ". According to the published 1944 " Beijing gazetteer " records, Beijing has a pole alley 16, well infants alley 14, flower alley 11, Lane 11 pockets shaft alley, alley 7, hall 7, Beijing city has more than 600 duplicate alley. With the problem, in the old society contradiction is not too obvious. Then a small population, residents not to move, some housing is a living for a lifetime, even lifetime, someone was easy. After the founding of new China will not become, the contact with the outside world leap, immigrants into a torrent, find people, work, communication, because of the same names caused great inconvenience, must be scientific induction, consolidation and change.
Renamed the another important reason, Mr Lu Xun said " indecent speech training", that sounds nice. Some alley in name early May for some reason formed place names. For a long time, the situation has changed, listen up indecent, such as crotch alley, alley, stew pot, bottle gourd pig dung beetle shoved alley, alley on the dog's tail. These rude alley of old people, have renamed the requirements.
( fragrant cover smelly homophonic name )
How to change the names is a scientific question. Some of the names since to be altered, it must take a scientific attitude towards. Through the test of history practice proves, changing names is the principle of prudence, masses is accepted, attitude of respect for history, fragrant smell, using the cover.
During the "Cultural Revolution", hasty, with administration the command means the minority will foist one's opinions upon others, unworkable. For example, a South Street on the west side of East horizontal juxtaposition of Ju'er Hutong, Qin old alley, before, after, round Temple cotton alley 9 lane, during the "Cultural Revolution" an order to cancel all old name, changed from south to north line of "the great leap forward of one to nine ". It has not been used, and an order was changed from North South row " southern one to nine ". A name change is not take cautious attitude, people can not accept, now restored the old name, the broad masses of the people and feel convenient.
Using harmonic change the old place names is a very good way. Because of the old society and old people's cultural level is general not tall, mostly by oral tradition names, with homophonic change old can play an invaluable role, combined with the " fragrant cover smelly " principle, is extremely successful initiatives. Such as sow alley to bamboo lane; alley to crotch Treasury alley; the dog's tail ( Yi ), change the high Yibo Hutong alley; braised gourd tank to be Fulu Museum; dung beetle shoved alley to time bright alley, alley; Bigfoot feet instead of teaching, teach the alley with Zhang Tuzi Hu Xiao; instead of long Tuzhi alley etc.. Some alley old name are not necessarily bad, but its meaning is unsatisfactory, such as hanging alley, who is not willing to let the people lifted hit, it also used the principle of filial piety to change alley ... ...
( Beijing's Hutong know? )
Through the study of place names, see Beijing names complexity. The alley of Beijing how? This is a difficult question, because the alley is the number of changes with the development of society. Old Beijing man once said, " a Beijing Hutong big three hundred and sixty, a little game of yak ". This is the three hundred and sixty big alley, according to a may refer to " on-chi " contained in the " fire lane " article three hundred and eighty-four, as for " match ox " must be countless. After a lot of expert's textual research, at present already has an approximately estimates for the number and proportion of.
The Yuan Dynasty as " on-chi " records, mostly the fire lane and alley, a total of more than 400 articles;
The Ming Dynasty by Zhang Jue. " The square " five alley set records, Beijing city street 1170, wherein the alley 459;
The Qing Dynasty according to Zhu Yixin's " the Mill Lane records " records, Beijing city streets around 2000, of which more than 960 alley;
During the period of Republic of China, according to the Tourism Bureau in the " guide to Beijing " on published outside Beijing City, a total of around 2500 streets;
New China establishs initial stage, according to " the Beijing tourist guide basis " records, at that time Beijing has all 2550 lanes;
Published 1987 " practical guide " published Beijing streets in urban and suburb of Beijing District Street 3600;
On 1989, Mr. Zhang Qingchang, " and in " in an article published in the alley, said that Beijing lost and suburban streets which total 6029, alley 1320.
After the founding of new China, Beijing city development make a spurt of progress, urban expansion, the original city only to walls for the group (now two loop ), now the 4 district than the original big about 1/3. New residential area called the " in ", this is the Chinese pre-Qin is used when the residential address, generally no longer used lane and alley, and in the " in " and " a plus ". Visible, Beijing, Hutong of increase is unlikely, but its effects can not be ignored, because it has a long history. Now there are plenty of people who study it experts, and there are many monographs published, such as " alley and other ", " Beijing ", " ramble on high streets and back lanes of place names in Beijing ", " Beijing ", " Beijing street names of streets and alleys alleyway on ", " Beijing City ", " street names recorded utility of Beijing Street Guide " and so on.
Through the above explanation, all of the streets and alleys of Beijing Hutong has some understanding. The composition of these street alley is the basic unit of the buildings and houses. Old Beijing is a residential courtyard. The courtyard has its unique structure and hierarchy.
( city of planar structure defines a quadrangle pattern )
Chinese courtyard architecture, according to written records, later than the Han Dynasty has become perfect in Tang and Song Dynasties, popular in Beijing, but the standard Siheyuan is from twelfth Century the yuan dynasty. According to the " Beijing tourist guide basis ", the new city according to the design of regulation is street, street, lane, the main road and a fire trail ( alley), and according to the relative, hero, cheap, high ( man ), in the post ( official ) grade distribution of land. The people to be the " characters" are good to finish, can " make room ". At the time prescribed in the 8 acres of land for a town planning, 50 blocks, residential 50 square. Each chunk within a number of small, as the housing base. City main road to North-South as much, so derived are East-West alley. Street and the street between 70 meters span of the distribution of various types of the courtyard. General courtyard house from north to south, the gate open in the southeastern corner of the yard. In a courtyard, in another side street South Road, is the home of the back door. If it is small and medium sized house, South for the front gate, but its range in the northwest corner of the house. Within the mansion " is " still faces south. Specific forms and patterns, wait a moment during a visit to introduce.
( the courtyard is the feudal family of a cosy nest )
Courtyard closed strong, shut the gate with the isolated, very suitable for the daily life of a family. Hospital compartmental structure and yard space combination, so that occupants in the limited area, but has the space to expand feeling, but also in the design accords with the " sleep after the former church " etiquette. Courtyard house is likely, wing, wing, back seat room respectively, very suitable for a family of high grade housing size. Besides the family servant, housing play their proper role, very convenient and suitable host. Courtyard planting trees, flowers, vines, pergola, flowers and trees, make person be good to hear or see. This pattern is concerned, in the feudal era, the family called is a kind of enjoyment.
Our coach is going to be in Beihai back door. Under the car, change manpower tricycle, in the series, see, visit the siheyuan Hutong landscape in the process, we can fully understand the Beijing people life.
( to Beihai back door for string alley starting point )
Ladies and gentlemen, we are now going to three connecting arc called the three Bridge Street alley, bibcock Well Street and willow street. The alley is the history of Beijing 's rich connotation.
800 years before the Yuan Dynasty, now Qianhai and Houhai are linked to the horn Bay in the shape of water, called the Jishuitan, South to ship water transport terminal. In between before and after the sea, there is a curved crescent moon river. Waters surrounded by foothills scenery good, gradually building increased formation of scenic area. The crescent moon river on a bridge, bridge, water bridge, commonly known as the three bridge. Later the waters river disappears, forming a narrow, streets, we have just gone through three bridge lane.
With three bridges connecting arc inclined alley street called wells street. Said the old street has a well is a well, a year of drought, water such as gold, but a well water has been very busy. Some people see well leading rock. The news spread, South Street was originally a Sheng Temple, changed worship the Dragon King, all of a sudden incense Sheng, also called leading well head well. Someone asked the borehole is leading?! but not activity leading, but Temple Temple on top of the Chi kiss was reflected in the water, with water fluctuations, formed bibcock. The temple has been no deposit, the street was said to the temple.
And Wells Street North is called the willow street. This street is the name of the founding of new China just appear after. Here is the crescent moon river is a river, the beautiful scenery, the history of many dignitaries here build bedroom villa. Although some has been no deposit, but in literature is very detailed.